De Waal’s conclusion is that in both cases there was pressure from the military to go for the more ambitious deployment, and that, in both cases, political control was weak and ambiguous.
Senior politicians fail to challenge the vested interests of the armed forces because they are too afraid of bad publicity. James de Waal says in his report: 'The overall impression of British practice was of disorder and incoherence, informality and individuality.'
The dysfunctional relationship between politicians and generals which resulted in Britain’s disastrous blunders in Iraq and Afghanistan should be governed by a code of conduct backed by parliament, to avoid future problems, according to a new report being released today.
The report’s author, James de Waal, said the UK needed to introduce standard structures for military decision-making, along US lines, with agreed rules for accountability to parliament.
The way Britain went to war in Iraq and Afghanistan was incoherent, inconsistent, and opaque, with political leaders failing to face up to military commanders, according to a study by Chatham House.
While it remains to be seen if efforts to rationalize and rein in subsidies will be dropped for being too politically sensitive, their appearance on national and regional agendas in GCC states is, in itself, a welcome signal that acknowledges that things cannot continue unchanged, writes Kristian Coates Ulrichsen.
Chatham House points out that biofuel efforts increase 'the level and volatility of food prices, with detrimental impacts on the food security of low-income food-importing countries.' Rain forests are being replaced in Malaysia and Indonesia with palm oil plantations for biofuel.