Ambassador (Ret.) Pauli Järvenpää is Senior Research Fellow at the International Centre for Defence and Security (ICDS) in Tallinn, Estonia as well as Associate Professor of Strategic Studies at the Finnish Defence University in Helsinki, Finland. Before joining the ICDS in May 2013, he served as the Finnish Ambassador to Afghanistan from 2010 to 2013. In 2013, he retired from the Finnish government service after 35 years of service, including as Director-General of Defence Policy at the Ministry of Defence (2002–10), Defence Counsellor at the Finnish Mission to NATO (1999–2002) and Minister Counsellor at the Embassy of Finland in Washington DC (1991–94). His most recent publication, with Kristi Raik, is A New Area of EU–NATO Cooperation: How to Make the Best of a Marriage of Necessity.