The debate over the future of the military dimension of the European Union’s security policy has been re-energized by the decision on a Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO). While presented as a milestone and designed to be complementary to NATO, Europe’s new ambition will have to confront the scepticism and reservations of partners in Europe and beyond. In addition to the question of who is willing and who is able to work together, diverging narratives and disparate perceptions among Europe’s states regarding past performances, current abilities and future contributions will also need to be addressed.
- How can the different national preferences and interests be reconciled in order to achieve a deepening of industrial cooperation in the defence sectors?
- After successive efforts of establishing a common European defence approach, what can PESCO substantively change?