Dr Heather Grabbe is Director of the Open Society European Policy Institute, the EU policy arm of the Open Society Foundations established by George Soros. She was previously Senior Adviser to the then European Commissioner for Enlargement Olli Rehn (2004–09), covering the Balkans and Turkey, and Deputy Director of the think-tank the Centre for European Reform. She has taught at the London School of Economics. Her publications include Can the EU Survive Populism? (with Stefan Lehne, 2016) and The EU's Transformative Power: Europeanization through Conditionality in Central and Eastern Europe (2006).