Fernando Cardoso was the 34th President of Brazil and served for two terms from 1 January 1995 to 1 January 2003. He is a sociologist and author of a number of books on social change and development in Brazil and Latin America. He is currently president of the Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso in São Paulo, chair of the Global Commission on Drug Policy and honorary president of the Party of the Brazilian Social Democracy (PSDB). He is also co-president of the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy (since 2008, president of the Independent Commission on Aids and the Law, and member of the council of Global Leaders for the Reproductive Health. He was born in Rio de Janeiro and has three children.