The Rt Hon Philip Hammond MP was appointed Foreign Secretary on 15 July 2014. He was previously Secretary of State for Transport from May 2010, when he was appointed as a Privy Counsellor. Prior to this, he held a number of shadow portfolios. He was elected to Parliament in 1997 and was appointed Secretary of State for Defence in 2011. Outside politics, he had a business career in small and medium-sized companies in manufacturing, consultancy, property and construction, and oil and gas, both in the UK and abroad. He studied politics, philosophy and economics at University College, Oxford.