Thursday 7 December, 1700 – 1815

In the face of ongoing instability in North and sub-Saharan Africa, the countries of Europe have taken diverse approaches to stabilizing their southern neighbourhood, from partnerships promoting democratic transformation to political reform to supporting military intervention leading to regime change. What concepts, instruments and tools can Europe field to engage with these countries? Who are Europe’s reliable and legitimate partners? Is Europe doing enough to enable its partners to take care of their own security, and what is the right balance between political, economic and military support? What are the prospects of addressing the root causes of instability?