, Volume 86, Number 4

Rik Coolsaet

Europe did not wake up to terrorism on 9/11; terrorism is solidly entrenched in Europe's past. The 9/11 attacks undoubtedly brought the EU into uncharted territory, boosting existing cooperation and furthering political integration - in particular in the field of justice and home affairs, where most of Europe's counterterrorism endeavours are situated - to a degree few would have imagined some years earlier.

To read this article, you need to be a Chatham House member

Find out more about Chatham House membership