- Traditional energy security has been about protecting 'adequate supplies of energy at affordable prices', i.e. 'business as usual', but these trends threaten climate security over the long term.
- The European Union is committed to make drastic reductions in its greenhouse gas emissions by transforming the way it uses and supplies energy.
- Policies to deal with disruptions will remain essential, but energy security policy needs to be adapted to address the risks of transforming the energy system.
- Such a policy will need to show flexibility to respond to changing options; to support competition between new technologies; to manage the funds generated by carbon taxes and auctions of emissions permits; and to integrate the EU's moves with international developments.