- The risks to population health and survival, and to social stability, from climate change are greater than have been generally appreciated.
- Further climatic influences are likely to cause direct and indirect adverse effects, including on mental health. These impacts will threaten the pursuit of health gains in lower-income regions. Population health may be further threatened by tensions, displacement and conflict.
- Global health and development strategies must address the health risks of human-induced climate change as well as promote low-carbon strategies that improve health.
- Current economic estimates heavily underestimate the risks that poor health poses to labour and capital.
- The cost of expanded emergency services, healthcare facilities, extended surveillance and prevention programmes, resettling displaced groups and falls in workforce productivity will grow, impeding other social and economic goals.
- Mitigation offers 'win-win' opportunities for enhancing population health. Meanwhile, near-term and longer-term adaptation strategies are needed to lessen the adverse health impacts of climate change.