1 July 2013


Jane Kinninmont

Deputy Head and Senior Research Fellow, Middle East and North Africa Programme


This paper addresses the issue of citizenship in the Gulf States, where activists are seeking to mobilize and construct inclusive notions of citizenship at the same time as governments are investing in cultural and social national identity projects. The author highlights how social and religious divisions weaken bargaining power and ultimately reduce the ability of citizens to negotiate with the state on the basis of their status as citizens.

This is a chapter from the FRIDE Report, The Gulf States and the Arab Uprisings.