Research for this paper was funded by the Australian Research Council Discovery Project grant DP1701102647. The authors are extremely grateful to their research assistants on this project: Khan Lin Thu, Jan Mairhoefer, Ryan Smith, Yang Kejia, and especially Zhou Yuping. For helpful discussions and advice, they also thank Lim Guanie, Kim Beng Phar, Kuik Cheng-Chwee, Giuseppe Malgeri, Umesh Moramudali, Ngeow Chow Bing, Clare Rewcastle Brown, and our anonymized interviewees. They are also grateful to Champa Patel, Chloe Sageman, Lucy Ridout, Vera Chapman Browne and Michael Tsang at Chatham House, and the two anonymous reviewers. Responsibility for the final version rests with the authors.