Conflict remains a major concern in Pakistan as, although domestic terrorism has reduced following measures taken by the Pakistani state, extremism and intolerance has grown fuelled by narrow visions of Pakistan’s national identity.

Social cohesion and stability are under threat as criticims of attempts by state institutions to peacefully resolve problems has encouraged groups to seek violence as an alternative. High-profile disputes with neighbouring India and Afghanistan also continue to pose a threat to regional security.

Pakistan also faces a mounting debt crisis and trade imbalance, and the management and governance of water has not adapted to the escalating pressures of demography – with the outlook under current trends being for greater competition over water between agriculture, urban centres and industry, and between countries which share rivers.