The Paris Climate Agreement is in doubt since the US withdrawal, and the ‘below 2˚C’ goal could become harder without real international action.

Societal shifts are a key focus, such as reducing global meat consumption, developing a circular economy in which products are recycled, repaired or reused, and improving the sustainable management of natural resources - such as water, forestry and timber, and fossil fuels - as part of a more resilient ecosystem.

Future energy provision is also critical, with nuclear energy, renewable energy and natural gas predicted to become major sources but, at both global and national levels, energy is poorly governed. Renewable energy’s market share is increasing each year, but institutional, operational and political barriers can slow the pace of change.