Governments, civil society and the private sector each have a role to play to safeguard against growing cyber security threats, and tackle controversies surrounding technology companies and non-state actors over personal data misuse, surveillance and election interference.

The risks for those who remain disconnected and unable to participate in modern economic or political activities is now acute, and clear codes of practice are needed to ensure the benefits of technology, such as artificial intelligence, can be shared widely while its risks are well managed.