Policymakers are being urged to mitigate the risk of severe disruption at certain ports, maritime straits, and inland transport routes, which could have devastating knock-on effects for global food security.

Environmental costs of food production are very high, with agriculture a key driver of water scarcity. Irrigation accounts for approximately 70 per cent of freshwater withdrawals around the world – up to 90 per cent in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Food production is also responsible for 30 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions. These impacts are unsustainable.