Although radicalization is often attached to groups such as the Islamic State, Al-Qaeda, and Boko Haram, no single definition of it exists. There is a major focus on the role it plays in the spread of terrorist and extremist ideology, but it can also be used to prevent progressive change in society, reject the rule of law, or simply undermine the status quo.

Despite references to a 'post-ISIS' era, territorial losses do not mean the end of the Islamic State either as an influence in the Middle East region or globally, as a key driver of radicalization is often simply the dissemination of propaganda to receptive or vulnerable individuals and groups.

The rise of the internet is helping this process and creates a need for policymakers to establish and exchange good practices in the field of prevention. A growing public-private partnership and dialogue between law enforcement authorities and internet service providers is leading to improved resources and use of tools and methods for early detection and monitoring of radicalization evidence.