• Female geologist with colleague studying graphical display of oil and gas bearing rock on screens. Photo: Monty Rakusen/Getty Images. Research paper

    A Profile of Gender Disparities in the G20: What is Needed to Close Gaps in the Labour Market

    This brief note seeks to inform the work of the W20 in expanding women’s economic opportunities. It begins by outlining the origins and objectives of the W20, as recently agreed by the G20, then highlights the key gaps in economic opportunities for women and girls in G20 countries, identifying common challenges as well as distinguishing features and constraints.

    Jeni Klugman
  • Grand Central Market in Los Angeles, California, October 2015. Photo: Melina Mara/The Washington Post via Getty Images.Chatham House Report

    Changing Climate, Changing Diets: Pathways to Lower Meat Consumption

    Reducing global meat consumption will be critical to keeping global warming below the ‘danger level’ of two degrees Celsius, the main goal of the upcoming climate negotiations in Paris.

    Laura WellesleyAntony Froggatt

    Catherine Happer, Lecturer in Sociology, University of Glasgow

  • A migrant girl looks at a light illuminating the camp site of refugees and migrants who spend the night on the street after their arrival at the Greek island of Lesbos, 4 October 2015. Photo: Aris Messinis/AFP/Getty Images.Chatham House Report

    Heat, Light and Power for Refugees: Saving Lives, Reducing Costs

    In its current form, energy provision to displaced people undermines the fundamental humanitarian aims of assistance.

    Glada LahnOwen Grafham
  • Flags of participating countries at the G20 heads of government meeting are placed in front of Antalya airport, Turkey on 15 October 2015. Photo: Anadolu Agency/Contributor/Getty Images.Chatham House Briefing

    International Economic Governance: Last Chance for the G20?

    The unwillingness of the US to ratify governance reforms at the IMF puts the international system at risk of fragmentation and could make the G20, IMF and World Bank less effective.

    Dr Paola SubacchiStephen Pickford
  • IA thumbnailInternational affairs

    Book reviews

  • International affairs

    International Affairs newsletter

    2015 also marks ten years since UN member states agreed on the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P) principle at the 2005 World Summit. Countering arguments that ‘the R2P is dead’, Adrian Gallagher highlights the value and importance of the second pillar of R2P, regarding international assistance and capacity-building. In a similar vein, Alex Bellamy and Charles Hunt explore how UN peace operations have changed over the past decades and evaluate the UN’s efforts thus far to make peacekeeping fit for purpose in the 21st century. Colin McInnes offers a case-study of a specific field of the UN’s work, examining its role in global health governance with a particular focus on the World Health Organization after the Ebola crisis. Shirley Scott’s article outlines how the UN Security Council might take a more active role in responding to challenges posed by climate change. Articles in the second half of the issue form a section on United Nations targeted sanctions, guest-edited by Andrea Charron, Francesco Giumelli and Clara Portela. Here, Michael Brzoska investigates sanctions mandated by other international actors before UN sanctions were agreed, while Francesco Giumelli highlights the empirical similarities and differences between comprehensive and targeted sanctions. Andrea Charron and Clara Portela look at the confluence and interaction between regional sanctions and UN sanctions applied to Africa—the most sanctioned region of the world. Mikael Eriksson and Peter Wallensteen examine the interaction of targeted sanctions used in different armed conflicts. Finally, the article by Marcos Tourinho explores the normative and institutional implications of the long-term use of individual sanctions by the UN Security Council. The full issue, including the book reviews section, is now available on the Chatham House and Wiley websites. A launch event for Chatham House members will be held on 18 November. A virtual issue on the UN drawing on the International Affairs archives’ will be published in December.

    Andrew Dorman, Commissioning Editor, International Affairs

  • IA thumbnailInternational affairs

    Index of books reviewed

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  • IA thumbnailInternational affairs


  • United Nations building New YorkInternational affairs

    The United Nations: before, during and after 1945

    The wartime commitments to defeating fascism and multilateralism made the establishment of the world organization a logical outgrowth of the wartime origins and the best guarantee of peace and prosperity. Ironically, the ideals of Immanuel Kant were found to be essential to the Hobbesian objective of state survival; multilateralism was a powerful strategy and not merely liberal window-dressing. That historical backdrop is complemented by two largely invisible variables from that time—the role of ideas and of non-state actors—which have since been driving change in the world organization. A future research agenda suggests ways to lift the UN from its current doldrums. Many of the debates and operational activities in the United Nations beginning in the 1970s reflected two topics—interdependence and the proliferation of actors—which profoundly affected what, since the 1990s, we have come to call ‘global governance’. On the positive side, these preoccupations helped us move towards a better understanding of a very complex world. On the downside, they also tend to celebrate unduly the ability of non-state actors and ignore the crucial role of intergovernmental organizations.

    Thomas G. Weiss