Football is a strong example of how citizens continually innovate in developing new tools of political mobilization.
‘Ultras’ are football fans renowned for fanatical support of their teams. In the Arab world, the term became more popular after the Arab Spring as ultras were active in mobilizing against dictatorships.
Ultras are known for their football chants, some of which became protest chants during the Arab Spring. But this phenomenon of ultras and football chants as vehicles of political protest has continued well beyond the Arab Spring.