This paper will identify, raise awareness of, and help reduce risks to NATO’s nuclear weapon systems arising from cybersecurity vulnerabilities. It aims to respond to the need for more public information on cyber risks in NATO’s nuclear mission, and to provide policy-driven research to shape and inform nuclear policy at member-state level.
About the Authors
Yasmin Afina is a research assistant with the International Security Programme at Chatham House, working on projects related to nuclear weapons systems, emerging technologies including cyber and artificial intelligence, and international law. She formerly worked for the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research and the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Yasmin holds an LLM from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, and an LLB from the University of Essex, as well as a bachelor’s and postgraduate degree in international law from the Université Toulouse I Capitole. She is also a PhD candidate in law at the University of Essex, researching the role of reliability in assessing the legality of artificial intelligence use for military targeting.
Calum Inverarity is a research analyst and coordinator with the International Security Programme at Chatham House. His work focuses primarily on conflict prevention and resolution, including the role of governance in facilitating these processes. He formerly worked with the Bruegel economic think-tank, and with the Democratic Progress Institute and UN House, Scotland. Calum holds an MSc in conflict resolution and governance from the University of Amsterdam, and a BA in international development and international relations from the University of Leeds; as part of his studies, he also spent time at the University of California, San Diego and the University of Ghana.
Dr Beyza Unal is a senior research fellow with the International Security Programme at Chatham House. She specializes in nuclear and cyber policies, conducting research on cybersecurity and critical national infrastructure security and cybersecurity of nuclear weapons systems. Dr Unal also conducts research on urban preparedness and city resilience against CBRN threats. She formerly worked in the Strategic Analysis Branch at NATO Allied Command and Transformation, taught international relations, transcribed interviews on Turkish political history, and served as an international election observer during the 2010 parliamentary elections in Iraq. Dr Unal is interested in NATO’s defence and security policy as well as security in the Middle East, and has been given various fellowships for her achievements; most notably, she is a William J. Fulbright alumna. She has also received funding from the US Department of Energy to participate in workshops in Brookhaven National Laboratory, the James Martin Centre for Nonproliferation Studies, and Sandia National Laboratory.