‘Last in, first out’ seems to be the theme in Indonesia’s fragmentation. East Timor – taken over by Indonesia in 1975 – has left its control and will shortly become the UN’s 190th member-state. West Papua, absorbed by Indonesia in 1969, may be next. It does not have the same level of graphic brutality in Kalimantan (Borneo), the Malukus and Aceh and is not receiving the same extensive media coverage. But some of its indigenous peoples have resisted Indonesia’s control from the outset. There are signs that history may now be on their side.