Political protests against globalisation have been increasing. The recent surge in demonstrations is, in part, a reaction to the changes produced by economic integration. From an economist’s view, imperfect markets are inefﬁcient, but from a political view, some imperfections in international markets can be considered ‘useful inefﬁciencies’ to the extent that they buffer political change.
As globalisation removes such inefﬁciencies, it becomes the political prisoner of its economic successes. In addition, as global networks become more complex, there are more linkages among issues that can create friction – witness the various trade and the environment cases that have proved contentious at the World Trade Organization (WTO).