In the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, a three-tiered Indonesian reaction could be clearly identiﬁed. First the ofﬁcial government response by President Megawati Sukarnoputri pledging full support for America; second a more cautious line from moderate Muslim groups who urged restraint, and third the declarations by those for whom the ‘war’ against the US was justiﬁed. Since the beginning of US-led bombings against Kabul and other ‘strategic’ targets, the ofﬁcial response has become more muted.
A key committee of the House of Representatives has issued a statement condemning the US attacks and urging the government to do likewise. In addition, the inﬂuential religious body, the Indonesian Council of Ulemas (MUI) has made similar demands.