How will the tide of ideas turn in the Arab world after the fall of Saddam Hussein? It is assumed Iraq will become a beacon of democracy in the region and set an example for all. But what if the opposite happens and the region turns more radical? Wars and their aftermath generate a basic re-evaluation of values and principles. The United States is now in conflict with most of the tendencies in the Middle East, from the secular Ba’athists to the fundamentalists and nationalists. Battlefield victory does not guarantee triumph in the battle of ideas. After Iraq, it could go either way.