Although this is a small war by West African standards, an estimated three to ﬁve thousand people have been killed by attacks and landmines and tens of thousands more displaced.
More widely, livelihoods have suffered as insecurity has stiﬂed agriculture, trade and tourism. Infrastructure under-investment worsened when guerrillas began the widespread use of anti-personnel mines in 1997, prompting several major donors to leave. Casamance’s transport problems became tragic international news in September 2002 when the Joola, the Ziguinchor–Dakar ferry, capsized with the loss of over 1,800 lives.
In recent years the security situation has improved, allowing the return of many of the displaced, and donors have been able to fund much-needed reconstruction. But such aid cannot outﬂank the political peace process, however great the momentum for return among the war-weary.