Changes in Europe and Russia since the collapse of communism have altered people’s horizons and expectations, as well as patterns of mobility for capital and labour. Greater opportunities for investment, new jobs in other countries and more permeable borders are among the consequences of political and socio-economic change. Just as euphoria in Germany greeted the collapse of the Berlin wall, so this year ﬁreworks celebrated wider membership of the European Union.
From Estonia to Slovakia, hopeful citizens eyed job advertisements in Britain and elsewhere. Migration in search of employment, better prospects, a higher standard of living and security is not a new phenomenon. Patterns of movement have always been shaped by factors such as conﬂict, war, famine, unemployment or the quest for a better life.