What deters Russia

Keir Giles offers key principles and recommendations for effective deterrence against Russia’s actions.

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What deters Russia

— Keir Giles offers key principles and recommendations for effective deterrence against Russia's actions.

Russian attitudes to the West cannot be altered, because they are based on deeply ingrained notions of hostility that will not be swayed by Western attempts to avoid conflict.

But the actions and behaviours by which Moscow seeks to implement that policy can be influenced – and there are successful examples of this throughout both recent and more distant history.

Read the What deters Russia research paper.