There is a growing consensus that cases of state failure and collapse have to be avoided if global security is to be increased. As the Acting United States Representative to the UN, Anne Patterson, put it, ‘failing or failed States… pose great challenges to international security… these States can become breeding grounds for terrorism, crime, trafﬁcking in persons and other human catastrophes. And the problems in such countries are infectious. They spread to neighbouring regions like a virulent disease, bringing chaos, misery, and despair to the lives of millions of innocent civilians.’
States that have recently come out of conﬂict, but where peace has not yet been consolidated, are most likely to fall into this category. Haiti and Liberia are recent examples. Part of the blame for the failure to build peace must lie with the international community.