Now, there are 191. Only once, in 1963, has the Council expanded to reﬂect this. This move, which raised the number of non-permanent members from six to ten, was hard-fought. Now, attempts by the so-called Group of Four (G-4) – India, Brazil, Germany and Japan - to push for another change have driven the issue of reform back to the top of the agenda.
The greatest anachronism, to critics, is the veto power held by permanent members, none of whom are from Africa or Latin America and, China apart, none are developing countries. Along with their contribution to peacekeeping forces, the need for representation from south Asia and Latin America have underpinned the claims of India and Brazil.