The future of the E3

Post-Brexit Cooperation Between the UK, France and Germany

This paper explores the origins of the E3 (European/EU 3) format of diplomatic coordination between France, Germany and the UK, and its possible future development. It addresses the potential role of the E3 over the coming decade and how the UK can make the best use of this format. 

Research paper Published 28 July 2020 Updated 28 April 2021 ISBN: 978 1 78413 410 5

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron pose during a G7 coordination meeting at the Hotel du Palais on 24 August 2019 in Biarritz, France. Photo credit: Pool/Getty Images
— British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron pose during a G7 coordination meeting at the Hotel du Palais on 24 August 2019 in Biarritz, France. Photo credit: Pool/Getty Images